Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Field Of Sociology Is An Old But Ever Changing...

The field of sociology is an old but ever changing systematic study of human behaviour in a social context. Within the field of sociology, in order to create a contextual understanding of the influences that create society in which we live theories are employed to explain the forces that shape our social world. Such theories are essential in explaining emerging social phenomena such as pornification (Furze et al, 2015). Pornification of the social world has become a significant mass media issue of which continues to grow. It is not only apparent in its raw form as pornography on the internet but also in various social media feeds, in advertising , discussed in the press, and as a part of some forms of entertainment. Key concepts of this†¦show more content†¦In essence, pornification refers to not just the self-expression of sexuality and sexual freedom, but also to the mainstreaming of pornography (Caddick, 2010) and its consequent normalisation within society (Kosut, 2012) . Due to pornography’s mainstreaming within society, pornification challenges theories of normalisation, sexuality and the role of the illicit (Mulholland, 2011) and in turn evokes concerns in relation to the development of identities, commoditisation of sexual desire, sexualisation of women and young girls, gender inequality, and violence against women with the inclusion of rape culture (Kosut, 2012). As for example; through pornification in its readily available raw form, pornography, it is implied that women in general should be valued only for their bodies due to enjoying all sexual acts. This in turn sexualises male supremacy which is believed to desensitise men and lead to the view of women being passive sexual objects and therefore the sexualisation of women and young girls as well gender inequality (Boyle, 2012). Other examples may include those that couple sexual acts with violence. Therefore, it can be said that pornification and more specifically pornography provide a fantasy situation in which violence against women and rape culture become permissible and encouraged (Boyle, 2012),

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Universal Declaration Of Human Rights - 1826 Words

For decades, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights has been used as an overall basis for the rights every human is enabled to, no matter their differences. Without a doubt, there are several countries that violate this declaration and have no respect for their citizens’ rights. Many may agree that Pakistan is among the numerous countries that don’t take the steps to make sure that every man and woman is enabled to these rights. In recent years, Pakistan has discriminated against their own citizens, whether it be because of their religion, gender, or even caste, which violated Article 2 of the declaration. In addition, Article 16, or the right of someone to marry who they please and have the right to raise a family has also been violated thousands of times, whether it be by the government, a citizen’s village, or even his/hers own family. The right to have good working conditions and pay, which is Article 23, has also been violated by Pakistan, as many adults and children alike have faced work brutality. As a result of these numerous violations, it is clear that Pakistan does not follow Articles 2,16, and 23, and therefore this country violates the Declaration of Human Rights. Undoubtedly, Pakistan has violated Article 2 of the declaration by discriminating against their own citizens in numerous ways. One example of people being discriminated against is when a caste was denied assistance because of their caste, The scheduled caste Hindus (Dalits) were deniedShow MoreRelatedThe Universal Declaration Of Human Rights1728 Words   |  7 Pagespeople. Culture can impede progress and leave women, minorities and other sub-sects of a society without the basic human rights that they deserve. Clinging too close to culture can be dangerous. The Foundations of a Universal Declaration The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was drafted shortly after the United Nations was established in 1945. The aim of the Declaration was to ensure that an atrocity such as the mass killings of Jews and other minorities in Nazi Germany would never happenRead MoreThe Universal Declaration of Human Rights1131 Words   |  5 PagesHuman rights are moral principles that set out specific standards of human behavior, and are normally ensured as lawful rights in both national and global law. They are acknowledged to be inalienable, since anybody is characteristically qualified for it essentially on the grounds that they are individuals. Whatever our nationality, sex, shade, religion, dialect, or ethnic source is, we are all just as qualified for our rights without separation or discrimination. All human rights are resolute andRead MoreThe Universal Declaration Of Human Rights Essay1368 Words   |  6 Pages The Universal Declaration of Human rights was adopted in the UN gene ral assembly by the 10th December 1948. This is the first time that the world recognized that everyone had the right to enjoy freedom of speech, freedom of religion and freedom from fear and want, and many other rights. International human rights come along way; before there was no rights. The idea of having rights that led to the development of international human rights takes time. There are benchmarks developments in internationalRead MoreThe Universal Declaration Of Human Rights Essay1276 Words   |  6 PagesA human right is an ethical choice and moral belief belonging to all humans regardless of traits, status, location, color, gender, or belief system. Making the connection to a universal law, the United Nations Rights High Commissioner explains these rights are, â€Å"guaranteed by law† and protected as â€Å"fundamental freedoms† (OHCHR, 2016). The Cambridge Dictionary defines privilege as â€Å"an advantage that only one person or group of people has† listing examples such as having a high social position or wealthRead MoreUniversal Declaration Of Human Rights1263 Words   |  6 PagesAccording to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a doctrine created to ensure a mutual standard of treatment amongst all humans, every person deserves an equal set of life standards. According to Article 18 of this 30 Article document, â€Å"everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teachingRead MoreThe Universal Declaration Of Human Rights1417 Words   |  6 PagesImplemented in 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) delineates the basic rights and freedoms entitled to all humans. The freedom of speech and the right to express beliefs freely is a universal human right protected by Article 19 of the UDHR. It declares that â€Å"everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression† and can â€Å"hold opinions without interference†. The regional agreements of Iran, China and Bahrain are in accordance with the Universal Declaration and are fully dedicatedRead MoreThe Universal Declaration Of Human Rights892 Words   |  4 PagesHuman rigths is an essential component of a tolerant and individually satisfied society. They are created to defend people’s dignity, equality and liberty. However, for thousands of years people lived with no garanteed rights, until 1948, when United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. But is the Universal Declaration of Human Rigths really universal to all states and humans living in them? I am going to argue if Human Rights should or should not be unically adapted to differentRead MoreThe Universal Declaration Of Human Rights875 Words   |  4 PagesI feel that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) does have a western bias. Many people look to US for guidance, but not many other nations copy our way of life. States can sign treaties, but they cannot be reassured that the other nation will keep its word. The US and the UN should maybe not be engaging in promoting western society, but they should be engaging in promoting the protection of human rights. The UN UDHR fought for minimal rights in 1948 by identifying three types of generationsRead MoreThe Universal Declaration Of Human Rights1485 Words   |  6 Pages1003236982 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states â€Å"that human rights are held by all persons equally and universally forever† –hence, they are universal held. This is due to them being the exact same for all human beings anywhere in the world. One cannot acquire human rights because of where they come from, but because they are a member of the human race. Nobody can lose those human rights, nor can they be taken away for whatever the reason may be. Together, we have the right to express ourselvesRead MoreThe Declaration Of Universal Human Rights869 Words   |  4 PagesGeneral Assembly (UNGA) set forth a declaration of universal human rights. The goal was to set a common standard of rights based on â€Å"recognition of the inherent dignity and equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family.† It was meant to become the perfect social contract but unfortunately was not upheld even by the signatory nations themselves. Many critics now looking b ack have cited the overreaching ideals as the downfall of the declaration but yet many have responded saying it

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Media s Representation Of Body Image - 1532 Words

The influence of the media on all aspect of society has spread like wildfire especially in the United States. One specific influence by the media is body image, large number of young women and girls look up to people in the media and are influenced by the way they look. Now days you’re appraised on your attractiveness, the way you look, the way you dress, and especially how thin you are. The media’s representation of body image has contributed to the social trend of an unhealthy lifestyle. Women and young girls today are fixated on trying modify the way they look to achieve the perfect body image set by the standards of society. Female’s worry about the way they look starting at young ages from the unhealthy image of the Barbie doll to the†¦show more content†¦We are spending countless time and energy trying to achieve the perfect body that the media has created for us. People will pay physically and mentally to achieve the unachievable look that the med ia has driven into our minds. In the media we see so many commercials that are being promoted for the latest developments in weight loss from pills to exercise videos. Our women and children are tricked in to thinking it is okay to force your body full of harsh chemicals to obtain an image that is not obtainable with pills. Another thing we do not normally realize is that children pick up on things they see or hear, often by their mothers saying they need to loose weight or go on a diet, or even cues they pick up on from the media. Or even activities they do that promote being thin can enforce a unhealthy lifestyle including gymnastics and dance. Young girls are putting their bodies through extensive amounts of unhealthy habits and it has placed a risk on our health causing eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia. It is more common for girls to develop eating disorders if that’s what they see current influential people in their life doing. There are many health risks to being underweight that include many different nutritional deficiencies like osteoporosis and cardiac problems. This is how many people develop an

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Effectiveness Of The Observed Classroom Management Strategies

Name: Professor: Course: Date: Reflective Narrative Responses The Effectiveness of the Observed Classroom Management Strategies Classroom management plays a crucial role in shaping a student’s performance in class. As a result, a teacher’s role is ensuring a conducive learning environment for all students. Teachers must put their best foot forward in ensuring they develop this invaluable skill which can only be learnt through continuous practice in the classroom. Generally, teachers are expected to manage their classrooms during the lessons. They are expected to arrange the classrooms (students), clearly outline the class rules before the start of a lesson, command behavior expectations, outline lesson goals as well as move around the†¦show more content†¦Alternatively, I could alternate lessons where I teach for the entire lesson then on the next one I present the group discussion prompts. I believe this would go a long way into shaping the performance of the students especially the poorly performing ones and the minority ones as well. This can be attributed to the fact that a signific ant number of teachers in the video logs seem to be adopting the same strategies for class management. The Effectiveness of the Observed Academic Language, Metacognition, and Communication Strategies The effectiveness of the academic language, a metacognition as well as communication strategy is evident in the video logs. In general metacognition in learning is evoked through a clear explanation of the lesson objectives, goals and vision; explanation of the purpose for studying that particular lesson, asking questions and listening to feedback as well as assessing what the students have learnt at the end of each lesson. The effectiveness of the academic language can then be measured by the effective communication and use of technical terms without consequent explanation. The teacher can as well explain the technical terms at the beginning of the lessons then encourage their use by assigning students roles on the same topics later on as the lesson continues. Similarly, conventional communication strategies have revolved around both verbal andShow MoreRelatedA) What Are the Most Important Factors That Determine the Learning Experience of School/College Students in Your Subject?1200 Words   |  5 Pagesthe learning experience of the students I have observed, each one with there own degree of effectiveness. Some of these factors include cognitive and conative learning, the material being studied, motivation, classroom management, student to teacher ratio, class discipline, time management, environment and resources available. In my opinion the most important factors are as follows; Classroom Management: Children often feel vulnerable in classrooms, particularly because of their teacher s powerRead MoreRationale For The Model Chosen1185 Words   |  5 PagesObservation A classroom observation aimed at facilitating and improving instruction can be of formal or informal category. The observation can also take place in any other learning environments rather than the actual classroom. Fellow teachers, instructional experts, and school administrators have the ability to carry out a formal or informal classroom observation with the primary goal of providing teachers with a crucial feedback of improving classroom management to shape their instructional strategies positivelyRead MoreSchool Wide Behavior Management Plan868 Words   |  4 PagesApplied research page 17 research directed toward solving a problem or making improvement in education. Example: Last year, on foundations committee at my school, we researched effective behavior management styles because misbehavior was getting extreme and we made a choice for a school wide behavior management plan. 2. Sampling bias page 112 a type of error in research that is made by the person doing the research that changes or misleads the research findings. Example: Collecting response data orRead MoreClassroom Behavior Management And Its Effects On Students Behavior Essay947 Words   |  4 PagesClassroom behavior management is considered to be one of the most important factors to determine student’s behaviors. With that being said, the study evaluated classroom behavior strategies that are aligned with Positive Behavioral Interventions Supports (Reinke, Herman Stormont, 2013). According to research, the impact of SW-PBIS has reduced problem behaviors and increased academic performance. However, despite the increase of PBIS many teachers continue to struggle with managing student behaviorRead MoreStudent Is An Effective Teacher971 Words   |  4 Pagesconfident, passionate, inquisitive, creative, innovative, collaborative, free of prejudice and discrimination, and understands the impact of the teacher-student relationship. Therefore, if we are to prepare pre-service teachers’ on the pathway to classroom success for the 21st century, we need university teacher preparation programs to establish effective program methodologies that educate beginning teachers on how to be confident, passionate, inquisitive, creative, innovative, collaborative, freeRead MoreAn Reflective Writing On Behavioral Issues And Management1252 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction This reflective writing piece focuses on behavioural issues and management that arose during my first placement at a large, mixed sex secondary school located in Shropshire. During my time at the school, I have observed a number of teaching styles and strategies which have enabled me to reflect and develop my own teaching techniques. The class focussed upon within my report is a middle set year eight; within this class I have 4 SEN students and an extra teaching assistant to provideRead MoreEffect Of Teacher Feedback With Increased Rates Of Frequency And Intensity1363 Words   |  6 PagesAbstract This study evaluated the effect of teacher feedback, with increased rates of frequency and intensity, on increasing on-task behavior within challenging student groups and classrooms. The most effective form of teacher feedback is behavior specific praise (BSP). BSP not only increases the on-task behaviors of the targeted students but also creates better emotional environments for teacher-student interactions class-wide. Keywords: behavior specific praise, behavior specific praise statementsRead MoreThe Behavior Therapy For Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder At School1216 Words   |  5 Pagesschool By : Sarah Alharbi Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), is one of the most well-known behavioral disorder in children (Madhuri 2015), Which estimated all year at about 3–10% between children worldwide. A.D.H.D is more commonly observed in boys five times more than girls ( Jonna 2006). There is no doubt that ADHD children exacts an enormous burden on society in terms of financial cost, stress to families, and adverse academic outcomes. a according to the behavioral symptoms ofRead MoreMy Personal Statement On Teaching And Teaching Essay1601 Words   |  7 Pagesself-motivated and are given the opportunity to benefit from the learning. The products that the students design were shared with the wider community at the conclusion of the unit, which provided the students with the opportunity to connect their classroom learning with the real world. As a life-long learner, Professional Development is an essential part of maintaining and enhancing my teaching pedagogy. As highlighted within the Blueprint for Education it is crucial for teachers to engage with ProfessionalRead MoreClassroom s : Run By Incentives896 Words   |  4 PagesClassroom’s: Run by Incentives After observing students in a classroom, I noticed how incentives are a substantial part of their schooling, their education, and influences their behavior. In one occasion, while observing the first-grade classroom, the teacher was giving out points to groups. These points were given to students depending where they were sitting as a group. However, she will also remove points if one of the group s member was not following direction, which affected the entire group

Managment Diversity Free Essays

string(256) " able to work to its full capacity in an environment where no member, or for that matter group of members, have an advantage or disadvantage based on their individual differences \(Torres Bruxelles, 1992, as cited in D’Netto Sohal, 1999\)\." ?WORKPLACE DIVERSITY Introduction In modern times, diversity management has been brought to the forefront of organisational issues due to factors such as globalisation and the emerging cultural and individual differences that emerge as a result of this diverse world. The purpose of this paper will be to explore the topic of diversity as it relates to the workplace by discussing perspectives from union groups and HRM practitioners and to investigate the barriers to workplace diversity. Through the discussion, the advantages of diversity will be discussed with an emphasis on the implications for the HR function of the organisation. We will write a custom essay sample on Managment Diversity or any similar topic only for you Order Now Overview Workplace diversity relates to the presence of differences among members of the workforce (D’Netto Sohal, 1999). By creating a diverse workforce organisations are able to tap the ideas, creativity, and potential contributions inherent in a diverse workforce (Aghazadeh, 2004). Diversity in the workplace includes culture, gender, nationality, sexual orientation, physical abilities, social class, age, socio-economic status, and religion (Sadri Tran, 2002). These individual characteristics shape an individual’s perception about their environment and how they communicate (Kramar, 1998). Organisations can approach diversity is three differing ways: affirmative action, valuing diversity and managing diversity. Affirmative action attempts to monitor and control diversity in an organisation and in doing so senior management can affect the hiring and promotion of individuals (Sadri Tran, 2002. ) An organisation assumes new individuals or groups will adapt to the norms of the organisation, and will not resist due to fears of reverse discrimination (Sadri and Tran, 2002). Valuing diversity can allow an organisation can focus of the benefits of the differences, therefore developing an environment where all individuals are valued and accepted (Sadri Tran, 2002). Those members who feel valued to their organisation tend to be harder working, more involved and innovative (Agahazadeh, 2004). Valuing Diversity can affect employees’ attitudes positively, however resistance can be experienced due to a fear of change and individuals discomfort with differences (Sadri Tran, 2002. ) Finally, managing diversity is when organisations build pecific skills and create policies which obtain the best values of each employee, which will create new ways of working together (Sadri Tran, 2002). It will provide an opportunity for organisations to manage a workforce which emphasises both organisational and individual performance, whilst still acknowledging individual needs (Kramar, 1998). Although diversity has always existed in organisations, individuals tend to re press their diversity in order to conform to the norms of the organisation and fit into the stereotype of the typical employee (Kramar, 1998). Mismanagement of diversity as a result of unfavourable treatment can inhibit employees working abilities and motivation, which can lead to a lowered job performance (Aghazadeh, 2004). If an environment works well for employees, diversity will work against the organisation, hence the lack of an enabling environment (Kramar, 1998). These fundamental components of workplace diversity can be further viewed through the varying perspectives of union groups, HRM professionals and organisations. PERSPECTIVES AND RATIONALES ON WORKPLACE DIVERSITY From a union perspective Historically the role of unions concentrated mainly on the fight for higher wages, shorter hours and better working conditions. However in recent years a shift has occurred to fighting rights for a diverse workforce (Barrile Cameron, 2004). Management aims to maximise the contribution of all staff to work towards organisational objectives through forming guiding teams for diversity, training to improve languages and celebrating success. Unions however, implement diversity differently (Barrile Cameron, 2004). A feminine approach to leadership has been undertaken to broaden a diverse representation. For instance, under the management of CEO Brian Schwartz, Ernst Young Australia has doubled the number of female partners to ten per cent, made changes to a ‘blokey’ culture and introduced a women’s leadership forum, among other initiatives (Robbins, Bergmann, Coulter Stagg, 2006). Women union leaders tie diversity in leadership to long-term union survival, articularly in light of the impact that diversity has on organising successes and increased visibility of unions to potential female members. Most of these leaders expressed a â€Å"sense of urgency† about the need to advance women and saw continuing barriers that prevented women from entering and remaining in top positions (Mellor et al. , 2003). To overcome such barriers implementations such as commitment to advancing women in the workfor ce and supporting internal structures to activate women have been undertaken by union’s worldwide (Melcher, Eichstedt, Eriksen, Clawson, 1992). Unions have officially recognised caucuses or other groups that permit people of different colour, including women, to discuss issues of concern within their union as well as in the larger workplace and community (Mellor et al. , 2003). Unions have provided mentoring and leadership training programs. Efforts undertaken by unions to foster diversity have resulted visible changes at all levels of leadership. The remaining task is to make those changes bigger and more permanent. The fact that there is more to do does not mean there is failure; it simply means reinforcing longstanding labour movement commitments to dignity, justice and equal opportunity for all working people (Melcher, Eichstedt, Eriksen, Clawson, 1992). Building on the rationale provided by different union groups, HR practitioners also recognise the importance of promoting a diverse workplace and recognise the impact on business goals. From an HRM perspective There are many HRM perspectives that relate to diversity management in organisations. Most of these HRM perspectives lead towards the contention that a successful diversity management policy can lead to a more competitive, functional organisation. In light of the perspectives and rationales discussed in the HRM literature, there a range of implications for HR managers concerning diversity in the workplace. Management of diversity relates to equal employment opportunity, but effective diversity management goes beyond the basic requirements of an equal opportunity workplace (Barrile Cameron, 2004). It is important for HR to determine an effective diversity management policy to be able to encourage a more iverse workplace. The most important job for senior HR managers is to consider how diversity will benefit the organisation and how to define its role in the context of the organisation (Kreitz, 2008). An organisation’s diversity policy should aim to establish an heterogeneous workforce that is able to work to its full capacity in an environment where no member, or for that matter group of members, have an advantage or disadvantage based on their individual differences (Torres Bruxelles, 1992, as cited in D’Netto Sohal, 1999). You read "Managment Diversity" in category "Papers" In exercising their role, HR managers must constantly apply the principles of diversity in order to maximise and sustain the benefits of a diverse workforce. This means HR managers need to be able to link recruitment, selection, development and retention policies to the overall diversity policy of the organisation (Yakura, 1996). Furthermore, the aforementioned should be carried out with a direct link to the overall business goals, the various shifts in the labour market as well as the more contemporary effects of globalisation (Cunningham Green, 2007). There are three initiatives that an organisation should utilise to increase the efficiency of its diversity policy. Firstly, there is a need for HR, when recruiting, to increase the representation in the workplace of historically excluded groups (Conrad Linnehan, 1995). Secondly, the diverse workforce needs to have the necessary empowerment to influence, or at least have input to organisational decision making (Cunningham Green, 2007). More strategic implications for diversity management exist that recognise the emergence of Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM). Such implications include building diversity strategies into an overall future success plan, integrating diversity practices with senior management practices and encouraging career development opportunities for all employees (Cunningham Green, 2007). Ultimately, managing diversity should promote competitive edge in the organisation by recruiting the most appropriate people for the job regardless of their perceived differences (D’Netto Sohal, 1999). From an organisational perspective: ANZ and Westpac ANZ Bank has responded to the common trends of the Australian workforce with programs to attract and retain a diverse environment that reflects their customer base (ANZ, 2008). An organisation is focused on creating an inclusive culture where all employees are able to contribute, as they believe that diversity and inclusion are essential for high business performance (ANZ, 2008). By managing diversity within the organisation, ANZ is provided with the best talent and a wide variety of experience to achieve success within a global workforce. Similarly, Westpac is determined to enable a diverse workforce that reflects their customers (Westpac, 2008). Westpac has created a culture that understands values and utilises the differences within people, where people can achieve success without encountering bias or being harassed because of gender, race or disability (Westpac, 2008). Both organisations have made efforts to create a diverse working environment through varying HRM practices. For example, HRM within ANZ created the â€Å"My Difference† survey which surveyed more than 13, 500 employees (ANZ, 2008). Within this survey, HR is able to develop a demographic snapshot of the workforce and gather feedback on how their employees perceive diversity and inclusion within the organisation. ANZ also founded the Diversity Council, which introduces policies and sponsors events to create a more inclusive culture (ANZ, 2008). The council attempts to increase awareness by supporting events like International Women’s’ Day and Disability Awareness Week (ANZ, 2008). HR in both organisations has implemented a range of human resource strategies. Disability awareness, plans in both companies outline strategies to increase support and inclusion for customers and staff of the organisation, which include premises being wheelchair accessible (Westpac, 2008; ANZ, 2008). Westpac is also partnered with Disability Works Australia to recruit people with disability to remain a balanced environment (Westpac, 2008). Secondly, to promote age balance, mature age employees are offered flexible working conditions to suit their changing lifestyle (ANZ, 2008). Culturally both banks have planned to help indigenous Australians improve their wellbeing and money management skills. ANZ celebrates cultural diversity by holding â€Å"Annual Cultural Week† (ANZ, 2008). Westpac reflects different cultures by employing members who are able to speak different languages to better understand the customers (Westpac, 2008). To promote flexibility, Westpac has different job designs for individuals’ circumstances, including versatile working hours, job sharing abilities, the ability to work from home, to have career breaks and paid parental leave and affordable childcare at work (Westpac, 2008). On a wider rganisational level, ANZ and Westpac both face a number of popular trends that continue to change the Australian workforce. These include the Australian population becoming increasingly more ethically diverse with 23% of the population born overseas (ANZ, 2008). The population is also ageing and is predicted that in 43 years around 25% of Australia’s population will be aged 65 year or older and the number of women in the workforce has increased from 40% in 1979 to 53% in 2004 (ANZ, 2008). Based upon the actions taken by ANZ and Westpac in this regard, organisations are recognising the benefits of a diverse workplace. The strategies by both companies to increase the representation of women in the workforce, as well as increasing the representation of diverse others, corresponds with the views of both union and non-governmental organisations as well as the perspectives provided through the HRM literature. BARRIERS TO WORKPLACE DIVERSITY Diversity within an organisation can be difficult and expensive to accomplish. Substantial barriers exist in both overcoming laws related to workplace diversity, the actual process of implementing it within an organisation and also the internal characteristics of the individual. The current legislation related to workplace diversity essentially creates an environment in which employers cannot recruit purely on the basis of a desired attribute. The main acts concerned are the Racial Discrimination Act (1975), the Sex Discrimination Act (1984), the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act (1984), the Occupational Health and Safety (Commonwealth Employment) Act (1991), the Disability Discrimination Act (1991) and the Workplace Relations Act (1996) (Williams, 2001. These laws essentially shape a scenario for employees where if a desired attribute is sought after, the job must be made appealing to that particular group of people without impairing the opportunity for any other group to obtain the position under the requirements of the legislation. An example of this is Westpac’s initiative to entice more women into their workforce by implementing training programs relating to gender differences in communication and career progression (Westpac, 2008 . ) However, once a company like Westpac overcomes these hurdles, there are still many practical ssues that need to be addressed on an organisational level. If a diversity program is unlikely to be profitable it will not be implemented (Bilimoria, Joy, Liang, 2008). The monetary benefits (such as new customers, better culture and strategic advantage) involved in implementing such diversity need to outweigh the costs (gaining diversity at the expense of skill) involved in pursuing it. The HR department within the organisation has a difficult task in convincing senior management that a diversity program can be beneficial to the organisation (D’Netto Sohal, 1999). The argument often provided by senior management against workplace diversity is that it is disruptive to productivity and causes imbalance in the workplace (D’Netto Sohal, 1999). As a result, the HR function need to be able to present the many advantages of diversity, and provide strong strategic reasoning to ensure that an effective diversity management is implemented. An organisation may also have barriers imbedded in their practices, culture and policies (Bilimoria, Joy, Liang, 2008). Resolving these issues has benefits for both the legality of the operating of the organisation and the multiplicity of their workforce. If senior management participated in only male orientated social events, such as attending the football, it may alienate women who generally may not participate in such events. Policy can also break both legality and potential for diversity by enforcing requirements such as 10 years continual service to an organisation in order to receive promotion into senior management. This continual service factor discriminates against women who are likely to have children, as it will exclude many from the opportunity to obtain the job. However, it is the individual differences within each person that provide the biggest challenge to achieving diversity. Individual differences amongst people are a major hurdle to workplace diversity, as most people feel comfortable when working in homogeneous groups (Kreitz, 2008). The presence of diverse others places employees outside of their comfort zone and makes people resist embracing the presence of others. Furthermore, research by Kreitz (2008) shows that humans, and organisations as well, are in nature highly resistant to change, further complicating the successful implementation of diversity. Another individual, and highly problematic, barrier to diversity is the language barrier that exists to culturally diverse others. This prevents, and in some cases discourages, the full integration of cultural differences within organisations (Kreitz, 2008). Diversity is clearly beneficial to the organisation. Managing diversity should involve utilising the cultural differences in people’s skills and embracing the diverse range of ideas and skills that exist in a diverse workplace in order to ultimately give the organisation a competitive edge. Benefits to diversity clearly outweigh the costs and evident advantages to workplace diversity are supported by various union groups and HRM practitioners. In order to be successful, diversity must be implemented within a strict legal framework and overcome hurdles relating to the practices and policies of organisations, as well as internal, individual barriers. REFERENCES Aghazadeh, SM 2004, ‘Managing workforce diversity as an essential resource for improving organizational performance’, International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 1-6 ANZ 2008, viewed 10 September , 2008, http://www. anz. com Australian Bureau of Statistics 2008, viewed 10 September, 2008, http://www. abs. gov. au Barrile, S Cameron, T 2004, Business Management: Corporate management, people and change. Macmillan Education, Melbourne, VIC. Bilimoria, D, Joy, S, Liang, X 2008, ‘Breaking barriers and creating inclusiveness: Lessons of organizational transfor mation to advance women faculty in academic science and engineering’, Human Resource Management, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 423-441 Cox Jr. T Blake, S 1991, ‘Managing cultural diversity: implications for organizational competitiveness’. Academy of Management Executive , vol. 5, no. 3,pp. 45-56. Cunningham, DD Green, D 2007, ‘Diversity as a Competitive Strategy in the Workplace’ Journal of Practical Consulting, vol. 1, no. 2, pp 51-55. D’Netto, B Sohal, A 1999, ‘Human resources practices and workforce diversity: an empirical assessment’, International Journal of Manpower, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 530-547. Konrad, A Linnehan, F 1995, ‘Formalized human resource management tructures: Coordinating equal opportunity or concealing organizational practices’, Academy of Management Journal, No. 38, pp 787 – 820. Kramar, R 1998, ‘Managing diversity: beyond affirmative action in Australia’, Women in Management Review, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1-11 Kreitz, PA 2008, ‘Best Practices for Managing Organisational Diversity’ The Journal of Academic Librarianship, vol. 34, no. 2, pp 101-120. Mellor, Steven, Kath, Lisa, Bulger, Carrie, 2003: Bilingualism: Relationships with Willingness to Participate in Union Activities, Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25 (1): 95-109 Melcher, D. Eichstedt, J. , Eriksen, S. , Clawson, D. , (1992): Women’s Participation in Local Union Leadership: The Massachusetts Experience, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 45, 267-280 Lepadatu, D Thompson, T, 2008, viewed 15 September, 2008, http://www. allacademic. com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/2/2/8/6/pages22860/p22860-1. php Robbins, S, Bergman, R, Stagg, I and Coutler, M 2006, Management, 4th edn, Pearsons Education Australia, NSW. Sadri, G Tran, H 2002, ‘Managing your diverse workforce through improved communication’, Journal of Management Development, vol. 21, no. , pp. 227-237 Westpac, 2008, viewed 10 September, 2008, http://www. westpac. com. au Westpac. (2008). Diversity and women in management. Viewed 21 September, 2008, http://www. westpac. com. au/Internet/Publish. nsf/content/WICREMCS+Diversity+and+women+in+management Williams, H. (2001). Guidelines on Workplace Diversity. Viewed September 20, 2008,http://www. apsc. gov. au/publications01/diversityguidelines. pdf   Yakura, E 1996, ‘EEO law and managing diversity’, in E Kossek S Lobel (ed. ), Managing Diversity: Human Resource Strategies for Transforming the Workplace, pp 25 – 30 How to cite Managment Diversity, Papers

Musicological fields Essay Example For Students

Musicological fields Essay Thirdly, the philosophy of music is concerned with the central question of What is music. Another major field is Psychology of music which relates to the effect music has on human beings. The last musicological field of acoustics is the study of the science of sound (Nation-master, 2013). These five fields make up the fundamentals of musicology and will be explored within this report. Historical musicology focuses on the progression of music over time. This field studies the progressive styles of compositions, performances, receptions and criticisms of music (Nation-master, 2013). The methods of studying historical musicology also include source studies, manuscript studies, textual criticism, style eroticism, the choice of historical method, musical analysis, and the application of musical analysis (Nation-master, 2013). This field of study also examines the lives and work of composers and performers (Queensland Studies Authority 2008). Influences and impacts on historical events in society are also explored in this field of study. Historical musicology was first studied in the middle of the sass but was only recognized as field of study in the sass (Nation-master, 2013). In the 20th century historical musicology firstly focused on the roles of earlier composers and assisted in he restoration of interest for medieval music and music from the renaissance period. This delivered the opportunity for composers to recreate works from these eras in an authentic way (Nation-master, 2013). Some examples might be Music during World War l, Medieval and Renaissance instrumental music, Music and Process, Mozart Don Giovanni. Historical musicology is studied to expose the progression of compositions, performances and criticisms over time. Ethnomusicology is the study of the relationship between music and culture in global and local communities (Queensland Studies Authority 2008). Ethnomusicology is interdisciplinary by nature and so ethnomusicology may also be trained as anthropologists, musicologists, folklorists, performers, composers, cultural analysts and cognitive psychologists (Applied Ethnomusicology Network 2005) as the study involves people who make music, instruments used and the behaviors and ideas involved in the production of music. The ubiquity of music is also a result of its great adaptability. Music is an unusually compatible art. It lends itself to presentation in the context of other arts, such as dance, film, theatre, and opera, and it is an accompaniment to a vast array of human endeavourers and rituals, including religious 5 musicological fields By Slinking dates, weddings, and funerals (Applied Ethnomusicology Network 2005). Music, then, has many uses, as it is allied with the myriad institutions and practices of society. This assists in the recognition and knowledge of communitys musical and cultural heritage. Ethnomusicology view the study from various perspectives. Although it had antecedents in the 18th and early 19th centuries, the field expanded with the development of recording technologies in the late 19th century (Society of Ethnomusicology 2009). The term ethnomusicology was introduced about 1950, and the field subsequently became standard in academic institutions. Since then works such as the occlusion of race in music studies by Ronald Ronald and Philip V. Bellman (University of Wisconsin, Madison, 2001) have been influential in the understanding of this particular field. Although ethnomusicology covers a varied range of topics it is predominantly focused on the relationship between music and culture within society. Philosophy of Music is the third major musicological field of study. It focuses on the essential questions that music raises. Philosophy of music is the study of monumental questions about the nature of music and our emotional experience. Most recent writings about the philosophy of music have taken an analytic or linguistic approach, focusing on terms such as meaning, metaphor, emotions and expression, invariably from the perspective of the individual listener or composer (Quietist. Com 2013). Contemporary philosophical discussions of music can be thought in a general way to address these features of music. Music has been discussed by philosophers since the recorded beginnings of Western philosophy, with the nature of music playing an important role in the thought of Pythagoras (c. 70-c. 90 BCC) and then Plato (429-347 BCC) (Sacred-texts, 2009). Pythagoreans and Platonism further demonstrate the philosophy of music. Philosophy of music has been and remains a much broader field than philosophical music aesthetics. For example, Pythagoreans investigated music as part of the quadric of four mathematical sciences, while Plato emphasized musics effects on the health of the soul (Sacred- texts, 2009). Lewis Rowel, music ph ilosopher from the University of Massachusetts Press, 1984 also expresses in his work, Thinking about Music: An Introduction to the .ue581e4519dc1451d4a5f22ce860c5b5f , .ue581e4519dc1451d4a5f22ce860c5b5f .postImageUrl , .ue581e4519dc1451d4a5f22ce860c5b5f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ue581e4519dc1451d4a5f22ce860c5b5f , .ue581e4519dc1451d4a5f22ce860c5b5f:hover , .ue581e4519dc1451d4a5f22ce860c5b5f:visited , .ue581e4519dc1451d4a5f22ce860c5b5f:active { border:0!important; } .ue581e4519dc1451d4a5f22ce860c5b5f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ue581e4519dc1451d4a5f22ce860c5b5f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ue581e4519dc1451d4a5f22ce860c5b5f:active , .ue581e4519dc1451d4a5f22ce860c5b5f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ue581e4519dc1451d4a5f22ce860c5b5f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ue581e4519dc1451d4a5f22ce860c5b5f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ue581e4519dc1451d4a5f22ce860c5b5f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ue581e4519dc1451d4a5f22ce860c5b5f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ue581e4519dc1451d4a5f22ce860c5b5f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ue581e4519dc1451d4a5f22ce860c5b5f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ue581e4519dc1451d4a5f22ce860c5b5f .ue581e4519dc1451d4a5f22ce860c5b5f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ue581e4519dc1451d4a5f22ce860c5b5f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Music Copyright in the Digital Age EssayPhilosophy of Music; Philosophy is to be studied, not for the sake of any definite answer to its questions, since no one definite answers can, as a rule, be known to be true, but rather for the sake of the questions themselves (Quietist, 2013). These philosophers focus on the fundamental questions music arises. Philosophy of music currently reflects the recent, general division of philosophy into the analytic and continental approaches, with relatively little exchange between the two approaches. This field explores fundamental questions about the nature of music. Music psychology explores the effect music has on a persons state of being. This field studies various aspects of music, like rhythm or tonality, could reveal principles of the functioning of the human mind (Press. Ann., 2007). Psychology of music was largely integrated in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries investigating 2007). Carl Stumps Ethnomusicology (1883 and 1890) was particularly influential in the recognition of music psychology, developing a theory of tone sensation based on individual cognition: for instance, examining the perception of similarity and difference in tonal stimuli, which led to a major focus on tonal distance and scale formation (Press. Ann., 2007). His works eventually became the starting point for development of a unique form of evolutionary theory focusing on music and, in particular, on pitch and intervocalic organization (Press. Ann., 2007). Music psychology may be regarded as scientific research about human culture. The results of this research have, and will continue to have, direct implications for matters of general concern: human values, human identity, human nature, human evolution, expansion of consciousness. Music acoustics is the last field of musicology that is concerned with researching and describing the physics of music how sounds employed as music work. The field explores the function of musical instruments, the human voice, the physics of speech and singing, computer analysis of melody, and in the clinical use of music in music therapy (Nation-Master, 2013). According to known musicologist F. V. Hunts Origins in Acoustics acoustics is characterized by its reliance on combinations of physical principles drawn from other sources; and that the primary task of modern physical acoustics is to effect a fusion of the principles normally adhering to other sciences into a coherent basis for understanding, measuring, controlling, and using the whole gamut of vibration phenomena in any material medium. (Origins in Acoustics. F. V. Hunt. Yale University Press, 1978). Music acoustics was first discovered in the Greek and Roman cultures between the 6th century BCC and 1st century BCC. This musicological field advanced rapidly during and after the Scientific Revolution due to philosophers such as Galileo (1564-1642) and Nurserymen (1588-1648) who autonomously discovered the complete laws of vibrating strings (Nation-Master, 2013). Galileo stated Waves are produced by the vibrations of a sonorous body, which spread through the air, bringing to the tympanum of the ear a stimulus which he mind interprets as sound, this statement points to the beginnings of physiological and psychological acoustics (Nation-Master, 2013). Music acoustics is considered as scientific field of research about the laws and movement of music. This field of musicology is concerned with investigating and describing the physics of music and how sounds are employed for music to work. Musicology essentially encompasses five distinct fields of music. Historical musicology, ethnomusicology, philosophy of music, psychology of music and acoustics are studied in order to possess a better understanding of the fundamentals of music Nation-master, 2013). The field of historical musicology is the study of musical origins including subjects such as composers, genres and musical notation. The second major field, ethnomusicology is based around the field studies on music in diverse cultures. The third field expressed in this report is philosophy of music which is concerned with the central question of What is music. The second last field is Psychology of music which relates to the effect music has on human beings. Lastly, involved in the creation of sound (Nation-master, 2013). These fields together make up the fundamental aspects of musicology.

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Independence Of Judiciary In Australia Essay Example For Students

Independence Of Judiciary In Australia Essay Independence of Judiciary in Australiaa) How is the independence of the judiciary guaranteed in Australia?While the Westminster system had largely developed because of the doctrine ofseparation of powers, the Australian system of government is largely based onthe Westminster. This doctrine of separation of powers proposes that the threeinstitutions of government, the legislature, the executive and the judiciaryshould be exercised as separate and independent branches. It is this doctrinethat stresses the need for the independence of the judiciary from the other twogovernment institutions in order to protect the freedom of individuals. It isunder this doctrine that no person can be a Member of Parliament and a judge atthe same time. The doctrine of separation of powers offers several advantages,it proposes separate, specialized and efficient branches of government and italso reduces the abuse of government power by dividing it. a) Why is the independence of the judiciary an important feature of Australiassystem of justice?The judiciary is the government branch that is concerned with the administrationof justice. The judiciary is absolutely separate from the executive and thelegislature, so it can check the concentration of government power. Theindependence of the judiciary is crucial of a democratic community because whenjudges are presiding over cases, there must be no interference and intimidationfrom the external forces. The independence issues touches upon the conflict ofauthority and freedom. If the doctrine of separation of powers did not exist,the authority would not be prevented from interfering in the administration ofjustice, therefore the basic freedoms of the citizens would not be guaranteed. It is up to the judiciary to exercise according to the law. It would be withoutthe independence of the judiciary that the principles of rule of law and naturaljustice would be jeopardy and other institutions of government would interferein the administration of justice. There are three main elements of the independence of the judiciary they are,permanency of tenure, dismissal by parliament and fixed remuneration. Permanencyof tenure means that judges are appointed by the executive government and have apermanent tenure until they have to retire at the age of seventy.It was aconstitutional referendum in 1977 that placed this requirement on federal judges. Also state laws have been made, for the state judges to retire at the same age. The only exception is the Family court justices; they have to retire at the ageof sixty-five. Judges can only be dismissed on the grounds of proved misbehaviour or incapacityand can only be dismissed by parliament representatives. This is a very seriousundertaking and has been used in the Australian parliament, but no federaljudges have ever been dismissed. The constitution provides that a salary of ajudge cannot be reduced. This is to prevent manipulation of salaries to a lowlevel, which would force judges to retire from the bench. This would be suitableto an indirect interference in the independence on the judicature. Howeverparliament can increase judges salary if the wish to. Judges also must not interfere with each others deliberations and decisions. While judges hear and make judgments and administer laws, the doctrine ofprecedent is so entrenched as a rule of conduct that it is the golden rule forjudges to follow legal principles created as precedents in superior courts. Judicial independence is also necessary because a judge cannot hear an appealfrom a case that she or he have just presided over, this would lead to aninconsistency in deciding the appeal. .ufa16ea2485f6f1b8cd7ac66878a69180 , .ufa16ea2485f6f1b8cd7ac66878a69180 .postImageUrl , .ufa16ea2485f6f1b8cd7ac66878a69180 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ufa16ea2485f6f1b8cd7ac66878a69180 , .ufa16ea2485f6f1b8cd7ac66878a69180:hover , .ufa16ea2485f6f1b8cd7ac66878a69180:visited , .ufa16ea2485f6f1b8cd7ac66878a69180:active { border:0!important; } .ufa16ea2485f6f1b8cd7ac66878a69180 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ufa16ea2485f6f1b8cd7ac66878a69180 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ufa16ea2485f6f1b8cd7ac66878a69180:active , .ufa16ea2485f6f1b8cd7ac66878a69180:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ufa16ea2485f6f1b8cd7ac66878a69180 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ufa16ea2485f6f1b8cd7ac66878a69180 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ufa16ea2485f6f1b8cd7ac66878a69180 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ufa16ea2485f6f1b8cd7ac66878a69180 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ufa16ea2485f6f1b8cd7ac66878a69180:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ufa16ea2485f6f1b8cd7ac66878a69180 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ufa16ea2485f6f1b8cd7ac66878a69180 .ufa16ea2485f6f1b8cd7ac66878a69180-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ufa16ea2485f6f1b8cd7ac66878a69180:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: social responsibility of business EssayJudges also have judicial independence. They have a law that protects them fromhaving threats of civil litigation for their statements in their judgments. Itis also a criminal offence for a person to interfere with a judges performancewhile they are performing their duties. The rule of law is strictly applied; toacknowledge that everyone has an equal standing before the law and acceptedjudicial practices must be followed. b) Give two examples how judges must comply with the rule of law. The doctrine of precedent is a fixed rule of the judicial conduct. It is theinferior courts that have the obligations to follow the legal principles createdin the superior courts. This when decisions made in the superior courts becomebinding precedents on inferior courts and judges cannot ignore them. For exampleif a District Court judge ignores the legal principle made in the Supreme Court,then on appeal it certain that the decision will be reversed because acceptedjudicial rules were not followed. It is the principle of independent judiciary that conforms to the rule againstbias. Everyone expects their justice to be administered by a member of thejudiciary who is independent form the legislative and executive powers of thegovernment and completely impartial to the case before them for resolution. Judges are expected to be disqualified themselves when they have anyinterference with the financial or other interests in the outcome of a case. This is the fundamental principle for the application of constitutional law asit is to criminal law. For example a person, who is challenging the legality oflegislation at a great cost, would expect the judge to resolve the case on itsmerit rather than the power of the government institution.